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====== PStamatiou 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates generally to an engine exhaust system and, more particularly, to an engine exhaust system having a particulate filter element for the removal of particulates from an exhaust gas. 2. Description of the Related Art Government regulations require that motor vehicles emit little or no visible exhaust gas emissions, for example, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen, during operation. For this reason, exhaust emission control systems are currently required on many new vehicles and automobile engines. Modern vehicle exhaust systems are fairly complex. The typical automobile engine system includes a number of exhaust pipes connected to the engine""s exhaust manifold. Generally, the exhaust pipes comprise one or more elbows and one or more straight pipes to allow the exhaust to pass from the engine""s exhaust manifold to the vehicle""s muffler system. A first set of valves, typically referred to as the primary valves, is located in the straight exhaust pipes. A second set of valves, typically referred to as the secondary valves, is located in the one or more elbows of the exhaust pipes. In an effort to reduce the exhaust emissions that escape into the atmosphere, engine exhaust systems often include a particulate filter element. The particulate filter element is typically disposed downstream of the primary valves and upstream of the secondary valves. Particulate filter elements typically have a semi-permeable membrane that is coated with a non-woven layer of ceramic fibers. As the exhaust gas passes through the membrane, the exhaust gas molecules pass through the membrane while the particulate, such as carbon particles, is trapped on the non-woven layer of ceramic fibers. Thus, the filter element filters particulate from the exhaust gas. The filter element must be periodically cleaned to remove the trapped particulate. The filter element is cleaned by passing clean gas over the membrane, thereby displacing the trapped particulate. The cleaned gas is typically purified hydrogen gas, which



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Schaum Outline Of Macroeconomics Pdf Free Download agnemam
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